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Osteoporosis is an extremely common metabolic disorder that can accompany a variety of disease processes. It can be conveniently divided into generalized, regional, and localized types. Localized osteoporosis is commonly associated with focal skeletal lesions, such as neoplasm and infection. Generalized osteoporosis accompanies senile and postmenopausal states; endocrine disorders such as acromegaly, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and Cushing’s disease; pregnancy; heparin administration; and alcoholism. This type of osteoporosis, which must be distinguished from other metabolic disorders such as osteomalacia and osteitis fibrosa cystica, predominates in the axial skeleton, with major effects on the vertebrae; abnormalities of the appendicular skeleton are mild and consist of uniform loss of osseous density (osteopenia). In the vertebral bodies, characteristic changes in radiolucency, trabecular pattern, and osseous contour are encountered. Regional osteoporosis accompanies disuse or immobilization, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, and transient regional osteoporosis. Changes predominate in the appendicular skeleton. A more aggressive type of bone resorption in these conditions can lead to cortical bone changes at the endosteal, intracortical, and subperiosteal bony envelopes and to spongy bone changes at subchondral and metaphyseal locations. Additional manifestations of osteoporosis include acute and insufficiency stress fractures and bone bars (reinforcement lines). Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging shows promise in the assessment of some forms of regional osteoporosis and in the detection or further evaluation of complications associated with generalized osteoporosis.

The candidate will learn the mechanics of putting together an electronic poster presentation in lecture type format.
This will be an official peer-reviewed publication.
The publication will be a favorable addition to the candidate's CV.
The candidate will be the first author, and I am the second author.
A candidate is not limited to completing one project. He/she can do as many as they like! (There are always topics to teach about)
The candidate, myself, King's College Hospital Department of Radiology and King's College all benefit from this publication.
Dennis K. Bielecki, MD
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